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INDIUM, THE MISSING ELEMENT


From Spanish Indigo, from Latin Indium: India. Indium was discovered in 1863 by Ferdinand Reich and Theodor Richter. following the spectroscopic analysis of a sample of blende. Its spectrum is characterized by two indigo colored lines. Present in small amounts in the earth's crust (0.05ppm) indium is one of the rarest mineral on Earth. According to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences which published the study "TRACE METALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT" Vol. 5: INDIUM. P.9 and 537, the total intake of indium from the diet, per day and per person, is less than 8 micrograms (0.008mg) while 0.2 μg only are absorbed by the body. Which represents an insignificant contribution.

Number 49 in the periodic table of elements, indium is a fascinating element for many reasons. Although indium is currently not recognized as a trace-mineral for health, it has been used for more than 80 years as a homeopathic remedy (indium metallicum). Due to its almost absence in the food chain indium has been considered an unnecessary nutrient, yet research tend to prove that trace-mineral Indium could make its mark in the history of nutrition.

NOTE : The following article is for informational and scientific purposes only. It describes the work of Henry Schroeder subject to further investigation. Please read the Indium legal disclaimer here .




Dr Henry A. Schroeder (1906-1975)


Henry Alfred Schroeder was an american physician, toxicologist, professor and writer specialized in both essential trace metals in their relation to human health and heavy metals toxicity. He was a fellow of the New York Academy of Medecine and also served as a Commander in the US navy during world war two. He teached physiology at Dartmouth Medical School and was the author of seven books and hundreds of science papers and abstracts during his life.

Schroeder shared great passion and enthusiasm in his work on minerals. He was a pioneer in the discovery of chromium's role for human health where he collaborated with Walter Mertz. He also worked on early findings related to Selenium, Vanadium, Manganese and is considered the father of the low sodium diet as he created protocols in relation to vascular diseases and hypertension. Dr. Schroeder has become a world authority in the little known field of the trace elements as they relate to living organisms. Shroeder wrote extensively on heavy metal toxicity, more especially lead, cadmium and mercury. His work played a pivotal role in the decision to remove lead from gasoline in the 1960's.



 

« Darwin looked at man as cells, later scientists saw him in terms of molecules. Now Henry A. Schroeder is exploring man as atoms. Just as the space race has revealed the significant role of scare metals, such as titanium or boron, in technology, so are Dr. Schroeder's discoveries revealing the critical balancing of the human organism played by only a few atoms of unfamiliar and scarce elements. »

Richard Buckminster Fuller




The first scientists to do any nutritional studies of indium were Dr. Henry A. Schroeder and assistants Balssa, Mitchner, Kanisawa, Nason and Vinton of Dartmouth University Medical School in 1964 to 1973 who published thirteen studies of indium effects on mice, the main papers propounded in the Journal of Nutrition Vol. 101-10, pages 1431-1438 (1971) entitled “Scandium ... Indium in Mice, Effects On Growth & Lifespan ” in the Journal of Nutrition Vol. 104, pages 157-168 (1974); and in the Journal of Nutrition Vol. 106-2, pages 198-203 (1976) entitled “Interactions of Trace Metals In Mouse Tissues.” These studies proved indium to be non-toxic in thousands of mice experiments, and therefore safe for all mammals including humans if taken by certain methods within appropriate dosage limits.


According to Schroeder, indium helps balancing the endocrine and hormonal system as a whole. Research suggests Indium to be the mineral of glandular performance. Therefore can influence all the body functions as a whole. Indium's daily intake demonstrated significant improvements in memory, libido, weight and blood glucose levels. It has been suggested by Mertz and Schroeder that indium act synergically with chromium and improves absorption of other essential trace elements in the body such as copper, zinc, manganese and chromium. Thus enabling them to perform their functions more effectively. On animals the absorption increase rate ranged from 60 to 694% depending on the observed organs.

After Schroeder's death in 1975 at age 68, only a handful of medical doctors across the globe pursued trials on indium in their daily practicing and confirmed its biological effect on humans. A rapid increase in energy and strength is one of the most frequently reported effects by athlete or fitness practitioners. Similarly, the first signs of improvements in terms of overall well-being generally follow after only 5 to 10 days of supplementation. Other longer-term effects are mentioned, including a decrease in the signs of aging.

According to the tests, the beneficial effects of indium occur quickly.

- improved sleep after 15 days
- Feeling of well-being after 1 week
- Better physical resistance after 2 weeks
- Normalized blood glucose after 3-5 weeks
- Normalization of libido after 4 weeks
- Regularized blood pressure after 10 weeks
- Normalization of menstruation after 3 months
- Stable eye pressure after 4 months

If indium had only some of the properties attributed to it, it would already be an exceptional nutritional supplement.





Operating basis - Current theory


Indium is believed to be the mineral of glandular performance. More than 1000 volunteers studied by Dr. George Bonadio and laboratory studies over the last 40 years suggest that indium normalizes the major pituitary-hypothalamus-pineal glands, as well as other endocrine glands and produced hormones including human growth hormones, DHEA, melatonin, steroids and thyroid hormones.

Indium seems to work via the feedback cycle in the hypothalamus / pituitary / adrenal axis (HPA). These glands controls the functions of 40 endocrine glands and help to regulate the production of 31 hormones. The hypothalamus is an organ of the central nervous system, located in the center of the brain, it is the key to homeostasis and parasympathetic functions such as breathing, body temperature, food and water consumption as well as stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract.

The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, controls the diffusion of growth hormones, the sexual glands and the function of the adrenal glands. Adrenal glands produce sterols such as adrenaline, epinephrine and cortisol. These hormones regulate the effects of inflammation as well as pain perception, fatigue and mental alertness.

Balancing the feedback cycle of the HPA complex synchronizes the function and production of at least 31 hormones.







One of the theories about the aging process is that it involves a decrease in the production of certain hormones as we age. Indium seems to act at this point by balancing and synchronizing the HPA complex, the hypothalamus, the pituitary and adrenal glands. Hormones are active in controlling sleep, metabolism, body temperature, appetite, tension, sexual desire and many other essential functions of the body.

Indium could stimulate hormone production at levels comparable to those of youth, acting directly on the major hormone-producing axis, and affecting the various aspects of the aging process - for example, the supply of growth hormones that controls metabolism and affect bone density. Indium could also act positively on the thyroid by attending appropriate hormone levels, resulting in more calories burned and therefore a weight normalization.

Possible additional benefits reported

- Improved endurance. - Improved Memory - Quality of sleep (pineal melatonin) - Help for migraines - Help to normalize blood sugar levels - Normalization of blood pressure - Reduces the effects of menopause - Improves hair growth - Reduces the duration and strength of cold strokes - Improved libido in men and women - Improvement of prostate diseases

• Indium and cancer

Dr. Schroeder's research shows that indium would reduce the risk of tumors on average by 40%. In the case of lung cancer, indium possesses the best anti-carcinogenic effect among all known micronutrients. The remarks also deal with the development of cancerous cervical cells, cancer of the rectum, liver, pancreas. The indium would saturate the neoplastic tissues and thus stop the proliferation of abnormal cancer cells. In the case of cancer at advanced stage, indium could improve the comfort of patients and reduce their pain.

• Indium and weight loss

Research has pointed out that indium was likely to affect weight. This is more evident in women than in men. Indium allows both men and women to maintain a stable weight without dangerous variations that can endanger health. Indium has a beneficial effect on the thyroid by stimulating and normalizing its function, allowing the body to burn more calories and normalize its mass. Indium is also believed to make the person more energetic. Thus, being more active, burning more calories and developing muscles rather than adipose tissue.

• Indium and longevity

Indium seems to act as a catalyst. By helping to assimilate micronutrients, indium improves many physiological processes of the body, thus improving overall health and longevity. It is not a question of stopping aging, but of improving the quality of life.

• Indium and hormones

As previously explained, indium appears to exert a regulatory influence of the hypothalamus. The pituitary that controls the production of more than 30 hormones uses indium, the thyroid is sensitive to this same element. Researchers observed an obvious improvement in hormonal balance after supplementation with indium.

• Indium and physical performances

Indium could diminish the accumulation of lactic acid as it allows it to be extracted from the muscular tissues. In people over the age of 40, indium corrects the hormonal decline and increases endurance (without side effects) and allows better results in any sporting activity.




Conclusion and directions for future research


The greatest discoveries and achievements in the field of trace minerals in nutrition happened during the XXth century. With a period of effervescence and excitement during the 70-80's. This period culminated in a joint FAO - IIAE - AI - WHO global expert consultation on Trace Elements in Human Nutrition, held in Geneva from 18 to 22 June 1990 under the chairmanship of Dr Walter Mertz, Director of the United States Department of Agriculture's Human Nutrition Research. Since then, many questions and problems were left unanswered and we can only deplore the lack of interest of modern research programs into minerals and trace mineral's potential for human health. As an example, Vanadium has shown promising effects on bone health, osteogenesis and blood sugar balance. Yet deeper research have been close to inexistant for decades.

The idea that we live in an era where everything has been found is a false assumption. The opposite is true : most is still left to be discovered.

Future research could focus on two aspects: a thorough study of the effects of indium supplementation and the need to establish whether indium belongs to trace elements useful to human nutrition.

The recognition of indium as a trace element is a major challenge. The few studies cited here are encouraging. A systematic exploration of indium concentrations in the blood, nervous tissues and glandular system can be performed. The results would be interesting in cases of glandular disorders. But much more research is needed to confirm these observations and determine the biological role of indium. There are thousands of studies on such elements as chromium, boron, which have recently been proposed as essential nutrients (Nielsen, 1990). It takes on average about 30-40 years for the general acceptance and application of the discovery of a new essential trace element (Mertz, 1998). Further studies will be necessary to understand its exact physiological role, the effect of its deficiency and interactions with various factors (stress, etc.)

This research has the potential to raise indium as a significant element, in a range of disorders even wider than those presented in this article, as well as helping to sort out the supposed benefits of its supplementation. There is a need for properly funded research programs on indium, may they be public or private, as it makes no doubt extensive studies are needed. There is most likely much more to find and future research could go far beyond what Dr H.A Schroeder and Bonadio found during their lifetime. For this to be achieved, the actual statu-quo have to be challenged, perhaps by independant research programs of scholars such as Schroeder.







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INDIUM, THE MISSING ELEMENT



From Spanish Indigo, from Latin Indium: India. Indium was discovered in 1863 by Ferdinand Reich and Theodor Richter. following the spectroscopic analysis of a sample of blende. Its spectrum is characterized by two indigo colored lines. Present in small amounts in the earth's crust (0.05ppm) indium is the 7th rarest mineral among the known minerals. According to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences which published the study "Trace metals in the environment" Vol. 5: Indium. P.9 and 537, the total intake of indium from the diet, per day and per person, is less than 8 micrograms (0.008mg) while 0.2 μg only are absorbed by the body. Which represents an insignificant contribution.

Number 49 in the periodic table of elements, indium is a fascinating element for many reasons. Although indium is currently not recognized as a trace-mineral for health, it has been used for more than 80 years as a homeopathic remedy (indium metallicum). Due to its almost absence in the food chain indium has been considered an unnecessary nutrient, yet research tend to prove that trace-mineral Indium could make its mark in the history of nutrition.

NOTE : The following article is for informational and scientific purposes only. It describes the work of Henry Schroeder subject to further investigation. Please read the Indium legal disclaimer here .




Dr Henry A. Schroeder (1906-1975)


Henry Alfred Schroeder was an american physician, toxicologist, professor and writer specialized in both essential trace metals in their relation to human health and heavy metals toxicity. He was a fellow of the New York Academy of Medecine and also served as a Commander in the US navy during world war two. He teached physiology at Dartmouth Medical School and was the author of seven books and hundreds of science papers and abstracts during his life.

Schroeder shared great passion and enthusiasm in his work on minerals. He was a pioneer in the discovery of chromium's role for human health where he collaborated with Walter Mertz. He also worked on early findings related to Selenium, Vanadium, Manganese and is considered the father of the low sodium diet as he created protocols in relation to vascular diseases and hypertension. Dr. Schroeder has become a world authority in the little known field of the trace elements as they relate to living organisms. Shroeder wrote extensively on heavy metal toxicity, more especially lead, cadmium and mercury. His work played a pivotal role in the decision to remove lead from gasoline in the 1960's.



 
« Darwin looked at man as cells, later scientists saw him in terms of molecules. Now Henry A. Schroeder is exploring man as atoms. Just as the space race has revealed the significant role of scare metals, such as titanium or boron, in technology, so are Dr. Schroeder's discoveries revealing the critical balancing of the human organism played by only a few atoms of unfamiliar and scarce elements. »

Richard Buckminster Fuller




The first scientists to do any nutritional studies of indium were Dr. Henry A. Schroeder and assistants Balssa, Mitchner, Kanisawa, Nason and Vinton of Dartmouth University Medical School in 1964 to 1973 who published thirteen studies of indium effects on mice, the main papers propounded in the Journal of Nutrition Vol. 101-10, pages 1431-1438 (1971) entitled “Scandium ... Indium in Mice, Effects On Growth & Lifespan ” in the Journal of Nutrition Vol. 104, pages 157-168 (1974); and in the Journal of Nutrition Vol. 106-2, pages 198-203 (1976) entitled “Interactions of Trace Metals In Mouse Tissues.” These studies proved indium to be non-toxic in thousands of mice experiments, and therefore safe for all mammals including humans if taken by certain methods within appropriate dosage limits.

According to Schroeder, indium helps balancing the endocrine and hormonal system as a whole. Research suggests Indium to be the mineral of glandular performance. Therefore can influence all the body functions as a whole. Indium's daily intake demonstrated significant improvements in memory, libido, weight and blood glucose levels. It has been suggested by Mertz and Schroeder that indium act synergically with chromium and improves absorption of other essential trace elements in the body such as copper, zinc, manganese and chromium. Thus enabling them to perform their functions more effectively. On animals the absorption increase rate ranged from 60 to 694% depending on the observed organs.

After Schroeder's death in 1975 at age 68, only a handful of medical doctors across the globe pursued trials on indium in their daily practicing and confirmed its biological effect on humans. A rapid increase in energy and strength is one of the most frequently reported effects by athlete or fitness practitioners. Similarly, the first signs of improvements in terms of overall well-being generally follow after only 5 to 10 days of supplementation. Other longer-term effects are mentioned, including a decrease in the signs of aging.

According to the tests, the beneficial effects of indium occur quickly.

- improved sleep after 15 days
- Feeling of well-being after 1 week
- Better physical resistance after 2 weeks
- Normalized blood glucose after 3-5 weeks
- Normalization of libido after 4 weeks
- Regularized blood pressure after 10 weeks
- Normalization of menstruation after 3 months
- Stable eye pressure after 4 months

If indium had only some of the properties attributed to it, it would already be an exceptional nutritional supplement.



Operating basis - Current theory


Indium is believed to be the mineral of glandular performance. More than 1000 volunteers studied by Dr. George Bonadio and laboratory studies over the last 40 years suggest that indium normalizes the major pituitary-hypothalamus-pineal glands, as well as other endocrine glands and produced hormones including human growth hormones, DHEA, melatonin, steroids and thyroid hormones.

Indium seems to work via the feedback cycle in the hypothalamus / pituitary / adrenal axis (HPA). These glands controls the functions of 40 endocrine glands and help to regulate the production of 31 hormones. The hypothalamus is an organ of the central nervous system, located in the center of the brain, it is the key to homeostasis and parasympathetic functions such as breathing, body temperature, food and water consumption as well as stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract.

The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, controls the diffusion of growth hormones, the sexual glands and the function of the adrenal glands. Adrenal glands produce sterols such as adrenaline, epinephrine and cortisol. These hormones regulate the effects of inflammation as well as pain perception, fatigue and mental alertness.

Balancing the feedback cycle of the HPA complex synchronizes the function and production of at least 31 hormones.








One of the theories about the aging process is that it involves a decrease in the production of certain hormones as we age. Indium seems to act at this point by balancing and synchronizing the HPA complex, the hypothalamus, the pituitary and adrenal glands. Hormones are active in controlling sleep, metabolism, body temperature, appetite, tension, sexual desire and many other essential functions of the body.

Indium could stimulate hormone production at levels comparable to those of youth, acting directly on the major hormone-producing axis, and affecting the various aspects of the aging process - for example, the supply of growth hormones that controls metabolism and affect bone density. Indium could also act positively on the thyroid by attending appropriate hormone levels, resulting in more calories burned and therefore a weight normalization.

Possible additional benefits reported

- Improved endurance. - Improved Memory - Quality of sleep (pineal melatonin) - Help for migraines - Help to normalize blood sugar levels - Normalization of blood pressure - Reduces the effects of menopause - Improves hair growth - Reduces the duration and strength of cold strokes - Improved libido in men and women - Improvement of prostate diseases

• Indium and weight loss

Research has pointed out that indium was likely to affect weight. This is more evident in women than in men. Indium allows both men and women to maintain a stable weight without dangerous variations that can endanger health. Indium has a beneficial effect on the thyroid by stimulating and normalizing its function, allowing the body to burn more calories and normalize its mass. Indium is also believed to make the person more energetic. Thus, being more active, burning more calories and developing muscles rather than adipose tissue.

• Indium and longevity

Indium seems to act as a catalyst. By helping to assimilate micronutrients, indium improves many physiological processes of the body, thus improving overall health and longevity. It is not a question of stopping aging, but of improving the quality of life.

• Indium and hormones

As previously explained, indium appears to exert a regulatory influence of the hypothalamus. The pituitary that controls the production of more than 30 hormones uses indium, the thyroid is sensitive to this same element. Researchers observed an obvious improvement in hormonal balance after supplementation with indium.

• Indium and physical performances

Indium could diminish the accumulation of lactic acid as it allows it to be extracted from the muscular tissues. In people over the age of 40, indium corrects the hormonal decline and increases endurance (without side effects) and allows better results in any sporting activity.





Conclusion and directions for future research


The greatest discoveries and achievements in the field of trace minerals in nutrition happened during the XXth century. With a period of effervescence and excitement during the 70-80's. This period culminated in a joint FAO - IIAE - AI - WHO global expert consultation on Trace Elements in Human Nutrition, held in Geneva from 18 to 22 June 1990 under the chairmanship of Dr Walter Mertz, Director of the United States Department of Agriculture's Human Nutrition Research. Since then, many questions and problems were left unanswered and we can only deplore the lack of interest of modern research programs into minerals and trace mineral's potential for human health. As an example, Vanadium has shown promising effects on bone health, osteogenesis and blood sugar balance. Yet deeper research have been close to inexistant for decades.

The idea that we live in an era where everything has been found is a false assumption. The opposite is true : most is still left to be discovered.

Future research could focus on two aspects: a thorough study of the effects of indium supplementation and the need to establish whether indium belongs to trace elements useful to human nutrition.

The recognition of indium as a trace element is a major challenge. The few studies cited here are encouraging. A systematic exploration of indium concentrations in the blood, nervous tissues and glandular system can be performed. The results would be interesting in cases of glandular disorders. But much more research is needed to confirm these observations and determine the biological role of indium. There are thousands of studies on such elements as chromium, boron, which have recently been proposed as essential nutrients (Nielsen, 1990). It takes on average about 30-40 years for the general acceptance and application of the discovery of a new essential trace element (Mertz, 1998). Further studies will be necessary to understand its exact physiological role, the effect of its deficiency and interactions with various factors (stress, etc.)

This research has the potential to raise indium as a significant element, in a range of disorders even wider than those presented in this article, as well as helping to sort out the supposed benefits of its supplementation. There is a need for properly funded research programs on indium, may they be public or private, as it makes no doubt extensive studies are needed. There is most likely much more to find and future research could go far beyond what Dr H.A Schroeder and Bonadio found during their lifetime. For this to be achieved, the actual statu-quo have to be challenged, perhaps by independant research programs of scholars such as Schroeder.






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